Causes of Conflicts on the Co-existence of IDPs, Retunes and Host Community in Herat, Farah, Ghor and Badghis

Abstract

Afghanistan has been suffering from violent conflicts, mostly intra-state conflicts (i.e. inter-ethnic conflicts), for several decades. Many conflicts have been prolonged by the absence of democratic political leadership and structures to accommodate political voices, protect civil rights, and respect the rule of law. This development research aims at the realization of the two components of equal importance; causes of the conflicts to ensure conflict-sensitive per-defined interviews such as the selection of the communities, target beneficiaries’ selection and delivery of activities. The purpose of this research is to identify the most-at-risk community in the 15-target communities and measure the vulnerability and the marginalized communities under conflict. The study conducted in two phases: qualitative and quantitative. Data collection techniques in this study were in-depth interviews (13), focus group discussion (6) and survey. A total of (236) youths, from (113) females and (123) male) participated in the survey, 81.8% of which were in age category 18-25 and 18.2% were in 26-32 category. The data is analyzed by SPSS. The qualitative phase distinguished three common types of conflicts: common conflicts, women’s conflicts and youths’ disputes. It also differentiated structural factors (racism, inequality, discrimination and so) and triggers (elections, aids/projects and sensitivities) of the conflicts with a clear picture of powerful actors and connectors-dividers. The survey results indicate a low level of social trust, negative attitudes towards women’s rights and low knowledge and skills among the population. The study came up with specific recommendations for both strategic and practical actions.  These data provide an objective view of the mutual conflict in community samples and serve as a reference point for prevention and intervention conflict.